Have you ever had a friend or relative who was sick and admitted that he had typhus? Or have you experienced it yourself? Try once in a while to pay attention to the results of blood tests, generally, nothing indicates the real typus. Most people say they have typhus when the results of blood tests show Salmonella bacterial infection. In medical science, this condition is not actually typhoid but rather a typhoid fever. Sometimes it is also called scrub typhus, typhus abdominals, or enteric fever. Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterial infection in the small intestine. This infection is caused by Salmonella bacteria found in animal feces, which infects humans through contaminated food. The suffix -oid in typhoid fever indicates that this disease has symptoms similar to typhoid fever, namely high fever. But the types of germs that trigger infection are completely different. Typhus is caused by Rickettsia bacteria while typhoid is caused by Salmonella bacteria.
Early Signs and Symptoms
Now here’s the thing, Typhoid infection shows an unspecific early clinic symptom. It is important to realize that early symptoms may be similar to other febrile diseases such as Dengue Fever, Malaria, Pneumonia, etc. This contributes to an unclear diagnosis and unspecific treatments during the early stages of the disease. The symptoms of Typhoid infection may progress ranging from common gastroenteritis (diarrhea) to systemic infection and incrementally increasing fever which is life-threatening, thus requiring prompt antibiotic therapy.
- High fever from 39 0 C – 40 0 C which increases slowly starting late afternoon until early morning.
- The body shivered
- Weak heart rate (bradycardia)
- Weak body (weakness)
- Severe headaches at night, especially in the back of the head.
- Muscle pain (myalgia)
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach pain (discomfort in the stomach)
- In certain cases, a spread of pink spots (rose spots) appears.
Dirty tongue in the middle, red edges and tips, tremors As the infection continues, you may lose your appetite, feel sick, or have diarrhea, some people may also experience a rash. If typhoid fever is not treated, the symptoms can continue to get worse over the following weeks and the risk of developing potentially fatal complications. At first glance, the clinical symptoms may look similar, but symptoms such as constipation or constipation are usually more common in typhoid fever, compared to typhoid. For this, the doctor needs to make a diagnosis to find out more.
Who Are At Risk For Typhoid Fever?
Every person, children as much as an adult, regardless of gender are at risk for Typhoid Fever infection. The disease is estimated at a prevalence rate of 358 – 810 / 100.000 population in Indonesia. This means that with a population of around 12,7 million people in Jakarta, there are 45,466 – 108,870 cases of Typhoid Fever in a year. This means that in Jakarta alone, there are around 182,5 cases each day. Among these, 64% of typhoid fever infections occur in people aged 3 – 19 years old. However, hospitalization occurs more often in adult (32% compared to children at 10%) and are usually more severe. Deaths caused by Typhoid Fever infection among hospitalized patients varies between 3,1 – 10,4 % (around 5 – 19 deaths a day).
How To Prevent Typhoid Fever
To prevent typhoid fever, at least here are some protective measures:
- Get vaccinated against typhoid fever: Visit your doctor or travel clinic at least two weeks before traveling so you can discuss these options
- Adopt safe eating and drinking habits: Choosing carefully what you eat and drink is very important, if possible remember to prefer boiling, cooking, or peeling food first
- Washing your hands is also important, and don’t forget to always avoid contaminated food and water sources, check for proper sanitation, and use only clean and pure water.
When Is It Necessary To See A Doctor?
Treatment for typhoid fever usually involves fluids and electrolytes and low levels of antibiotics. While the treatment for typhus requires special antibiotics and may require intravenous fluids or oxygen. Make sure when you or those around you have symptoms of typhoid or typhoid fever, search “clinic near me” immediately to see the doctor.
Sources: alodokter.com, mag.co.id